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The Howard Cuzzins databases were last updated: Monday, May 05, 2014

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DNA Testing!


'Genetic genealogy' is the use of DNA testing in association with surnames. This usually involves the use of the paternally-inherited Y-chromosome that all males possess as this is often the same path that surnames follow.

Certain genetic markers in 'junk DNA' are analyzed to provide a result; string of numbers called a 'haplotype'. This haplotype isn't medically informative or personally identifiable, but it is possible to compare a person's haplotype with another person to determine if they are related.

Comparisons are best made with people who share the same or similar surname; you will share your haplotype with others who are not related to you and so by using the surname too, this significantly raises the probabilities that the two people are genetically related when a match is found.

Testing companies send out swab kits to participants by post. The Q-tip like swabs are gently rubbed on the inside of the cheeks to collect a few buccal cells (which line inside of the mouth).

These swabs are then sent for analysis where the DNA is extracted, purified and the genetic markers under analysis are amplified (which produces many copies of these small genetic markers). The product is then fed through a genetic analyzer which separates the markers out by size.

The size of each marker provides the basis for the results produced. These results (the haplotype) can then be compared with others with the same or similar surname.

To get an in-depth explanation, click here (opens in a new window).

If I take a DNA test, will the results identify the name of my ancestor(s)?

Your results will establish your haplotype, then your results can be compared with other people's results who are in the same haplogroup. Further analysis by sharing ancestral information can then be analyzed to identify common ancestors.....

Then why should I take a DNA test?

First, and most importantly, before you decide to take the test, be sure that you are prepared psychologically! No kidding! Only serious genealogy researchers and people who want to know "for sure" should participate. One never knows for sure what might be hiding in a Family Tree until they start doing genealogy research. So, having cleared that up, why should someone take a DNA test?

Because there are others who have been tested and their DNA markers might match your results. If so, then, working with others, you can identify common ancestors.

We keep a cross-reference database (by kit#, NOT by your name) that shows the DNA marker matches and we show the ancestor's name that you and others provide us. YES, you can contact them and share genealogy information.

How do I get started?

First, you should decide which type of DNA test to take.

There are 2 types of test - Y-chromosome for men and mitochondrial mtDNA for females. In addition, there are more complex tests that provide much more information.

If you have watched some of the detective shows on TV, you have heard these DNA terms. Right?

If I take a DNA test, what happens to the test results and who will have access to the results?

OK, let's stop here! We at The Genealogy Tree would like for you and your family to participate in this project and benefit from this highly effective genealogy research tool.

The FIRST STEP is to take the DNA test. You will be taking either the Y-chromosome (males) or the mitochondrial mtDNA (females). In either case, when you get your results, please contact us and let's get your results integrated with other Howard researchers.

HAVE YOU TAKEN THE TEST???? If not, click on the picture below.


For more information and instructions for ordering,
click on the following link:


Excellent DNA links...

  • This site holds the database for all male DNA tests: Search by last name for Howard
  • This site holds the database for all female DNA tests: Search by last name for Howard
Clan Ursula
  • This site is for the Haplogroup on your maternal line, very interesting stuff...

This site is a member of WebRing. To browse visit here.